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Pendidikan dan Proses Humanisasi

Tanggal : 16/08/2009, dibaca 519 kali.

Manusia adalah sebagai makhluk sosial ( Homo Sosius ), yang dibekali Tuhan dengan akal, di mana akal akan menjadikan manusia mengetahui segala sesuatu. Sesuatu yang sepele terkadang terlupakan begitu saja dalam kehidupan. Manusia sering terfokus kepada persoalan besar, namun sering kali terlena pada permasalahan yang sepele.

Padahal bila ditinjau secara filosofis, akan menjadi fondasi untuk membangun kesadaran intelektual. Maka dari itu manusia seharusnya memahami hakekat diri dan lingkungan dalam proses perubahan. Proses penyadaran di sini menjadi amat penting di dalam kehidupan manusia.

Pendidikan merupakan proses yang dilakukan oleh sebagian masyarakat di belahan dunia manapun. Namun pendidikan yang diharapkan sebagai bagian dari proses kehidupan yang dapat mengentaskan manusia dari penindasan dan kesengsaraan ternyata menjadi bagian yang menindas manusia itu sendiri.

Oleh karena itu bagaimana sekarang memposisikan proses pembelajaran sebagai hal yang suci dan sesuai dengan harapan masyarakat, yaitu sebuah proses pembelajaran yang tidak menindas dan tidak ada yang tertindas. Ketika seseorang merasakan hak-haknya dirampas, maka seharusnya ia menuntut.

Pada dasarnya tidak ada yang dapat mengubah nasib kita kecuali diri kita sendiri. Oleh karena itu, setiap manusia harus berusaha keluar dari segala bentuk penindasan dan berusaha memerangi setiap bentuk penindasan. Selama ini kita melihat penindasan justru lahir dari dunia pendidikan yang selama ini kita banggakan.

Sekolah selama ini dijadikan sebuah pabrik, di mana lulusan-lulusannya siap menjadi tenaga kerja siap pakai. Maka sebagian fungsi sekolah yang ada di Indonesia tidak lebih hanya sebagai cara untuk mencari bekal untuk kerja. Tidak mengherankan ketika siswa tidak menjadi semakin cerdas, tapi menjadi semakin beringas dan brutal.

Tawuran pelajar terjadi dimana-mana dan banyak sekali penyalahgunaan NARKOBA yang dilakukan oleh pelajar. Hal itu merupakan bukti ketidakberhasilan sekolah untuk membentuk siswa menjadi manusia pembelajar. Pembelajar adalah individu-individu yang dapat memilah dan memilih mana yang baik dan yang buruk.

Beberapa contoh di atas merupakan pertanda bahwa pendidikan hanya dijadikan ajang penindasan bagi siswa. Erat kaitannya dengan hal tersebut, Freire yang adalah seorang tokoh pendidikan menggagas adanya concientizacao ( kesadaran untuk melakukan ). Concientizacao adalah kesadaran untuk melakukan pembelaan kemanusiaan. Dapat memberantas buta huruf di kalangan orang dewasa misalnya, dimaknai sebagai usaha membebaskan manusia dari belenggu kebodohan.

Freire mengklarifikasikan kesadaran dalam tiga hal. Pertama, kesadaran magis ( magical conciousness ) yaitu kesadaran yang tidak mampu melihat kaitan antara satu faktor dengan yang lainnya, dalam hal ini melihat faktor di luar manusia. Kedua, kesadaran naf ( Naival consciousness ) yaitu manusia menjadi akar penyebab masalah masyarakat. Ketiga, kesadaran kritis ( critical conciousness ) yaitu sistem dan struktur sebagai sumber masalah. Kritis penyadaran struktur dan sistem politik, sosial, ekonomi, budaya pada masyarakat. Hal ini menunjukan bahwa kritisme sangatlah penting di dalam pelembagaan penyadaran masyarakat.

Sebuah kenyataan tidak harus menjadi suatu keharusan. Jika kenyataan menyimpang dari keharusan, maka tugas manusia untuk merubahnya, agar sesuai dengan apa yang seharusnya. Kenyataan tersebut sering disebut dengan fitrah. Fitrah manusia sejati adalah pelaku ( subyek ), bukan obyek atau penderita. Fitrah manusia adalah menjadi merdeka dan menjadi bebas. Kesemuanya itu sering disebut dengan tujuan humanisasi Freire.

Freire juga menyebutkan pendidikan seharusnya berorientasi kepada pengenalan realitas dari manusia dan dirinya. Hal itu berarti bahwa pendidikan bukan hanya sebagai ajang transfer of knowledge akan tetapi bagaimana ilmu pengetahuan dijadikan sarana untuk mendidik manusia agar mampu membaca realitas sosial. Hal ini juga didukung oleh Lodge yang menyatakan life is education, education is life.

*) Penulis adalah Benny Setiawan, mahasiswa fakultas Syari'ah Universitas Islam Negeri (UIN) Sunan Kalijaga, Yogyakarta.



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